A computer system is a combination of hardware and software In which Computer hardware includes the physical components of a computer, such as input devices, output devices, and central processing units. While Software is the set of programs that run on a computer and give users access to its hardware components.
Further software can be classified broadly into two categories.1. System Software
2. Application Software
Computers are machines that, unlike humans, do not know anything about themselves. Rather it requires instructions to perform anything. The instructions are provided to it through software. The software controls the computer's internal operations. (viz. reading data from input devices transmitting processed information to the output devices, checking system components, converting instructions to computer understandable form, etc.) is known as system software.
This type of software associate to one specific application. For instance, software that can perform railway reservation functions cannot prepare results for a school.
These are the computer programs that allow computers to perform specific functions, such as processing words or handling financial transactions.
Application software can further be subdivided into four categories:
Only system software does not satiate for efficient use of computers because the system software exists mostly for the ease of the computer. Other programs or application software, for example—are required to make computers useful. Writing application software has resulted in almost every task imaginable being automated: from word processing and college selection to making dinner reservations at restaurants.
Software may be designed to meet the needs of a large number of applications—from thousands to millions. Rather some available software is designed that may be used by individual users in a manner it suits their needs and requirements. Such general-application software is known as packages.
Some most common and major categories of general application software are:
those application programs that assist the computer by performing housekeeping functions like backing uptick or scanning / cleaning Viruses or arranging information etc are called utility software.
There is a downside to every advantage, and software is no exception. Utilities can help you overcome these problems, maximizing your computer's potential by filling the gaps. Here are some important utilities that have been discussed below:
(i) Text Editor - This utility program is used for creating and editing text files.
(ii) Backup Utility - This utility program facilitates the backing-up of a disk. Data backups are duplicates of your computer's hard drive that you can use if the original information becomes lost or destroyed.
(iii) Compression Utility - The compression utility program helps to reduce the space needed for storage by compressing large files.
(iv) Disk Defragmenter - A file is fragmented when it becomes too large to store in a single location. When this happens, your computer splits the file and stores it in pieces. Using fragmented files can slow down the speed with which your computer accesses those files. Disk Defragmenter is a utility program that speeds up disk access by rearranging files and free space on your computer.
(v) Antivirus Software - This program protects your computer against viruses. A computer virus is a malicious program that disrupts the normal functioning of a computer. If your system has an antivirus program installed, it can scan the disk for viruses and remove them if needed. Moreover, some antivirus software remains active in memory so that they can detect viruses (as soon as they occur) and then neutralize them.
3. Customised Software
This type of software is specifically created for a single business to meet its specific demands. For instance, a company wants to computerize its 'Accounts department and gets software that can serve its needs. Such software is business software. There is much readymade business software. These can cater to a variety of business needs. Examples of this software are Inventory Management System (for managing inventory details of a company), Payroll system (for handling payroll of a company's employees), Financial Accounting, Hotel Management, and Reservation System, etc. Although there is standard business software available in the market, some companies prefer getting customized (tailor-made) software as per their specific requirements.
4. Developer Tools
When programmers develop software and programs, they have a prewritten set of code/functions, class scripts, etc. Software libraries are predefined and available to use, a suite of data and programming code in the form of prewritten code/functions/scripts/classes, etc. that can be used in developing new software programs and applications.
In a nutshell, Application Software is the set of programs necessary to carry out operations for a specified application. Since it is not feasible to design software for each one of numerous functions. Rather some general software is designed and classified into four categories 1. Packages 2. Utilities 3. Customized Software 4. Developer Tools